Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan «Modi flies to Japan, carries a long pending nuclear deal,» Outlook, November 10, 2016. Australia and Japan then led the international opposition to India`s action. New Delhi was particularly offended by Australia`s attitude towards the tests and argued that it was hypocritical to condemn India`s need to ensure its own security, while Australia is protected under the US nuclear roof. Although this episode took place more than a quarter of a century ago, some in New Delhi have used Australia`s attitude as a reason to slow down the development of strategic relations. The nuclear deal is a new step on the path to India`s international acceptance of its nuclear program, dethough it has not ratified the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and it follows similar agreements with the United States and France. He notably mentioned Gujarat-based Adani Group and Andhra-based GVK Group for their recent significant investments and defended them against allegations by environmental organizations such as Greenpeace. India and France have a long history of cooperation since the 1950s. They shared a strategic partnership through diplomatic exchanges and bilateral meetings on trade and civil nuclear energy. France has played an important role in the advancement of Indian nuclear technology.
The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) proposed in 1950 to India technical cooperation in the field of civil nuclear innovation, carried out in 1951, the two countries signing a bilateral agreement «for the research and construction of reactors based on beryllium».  France remains a strong supporter of India in improving global nuclear cooperation. After India`s peaceful explosion in 1974, France proved to be the only Western country to praise the event and indicate that it reflected India`s progress in the nuclear sector. However, France insisted on ensuring that its supply of nuclear materials was not used in future nuclear explosions by India.  Civil nuclear relations between India and the United States and subsequent agreements have been essential in placing India on the global front of civil nuclear trade and maintaining its position as a responsible nuclear power. The 123 agreement also changed the partnership between India and the United States: from alienated democracies to committed democracies and now to strategic partners. . .