Some EU rules on food and agriculture also apply to NI during the backstop period. Existing controls on animals and animal products moving from the UK to NI need to be strengthened. The political statement states that provisions to address health and plant protection barriers to trade barriers should be introduced «on the basis of WTO agreements and going beyond.» On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020 and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020.  That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratification of the agreement, concluding the agreement and allowing it to enter into force on the date of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU on 31 January 2020, at 11 .m GMT. The British Parliament must proceed with two authorisation procedures before the UK can ratify the withdrawal agreement. Both the EU Law (Withdrawal Act 2018) and the Constitutional Reform Act 2010 and the Governance Act (CRAG) are obstacles to the UK`s ability to ratify the negotiated agreement. The Withdrawal Act also provides for parliamentary procedure in the event of a rejection of an agreement by the House of Commons or if a negotiated agreement is ever reached. The UK will be able to enter into trade agreements with third countries; However, the customs union would significantly reduce the UK`s ability to have very different trade relations with them, particularly with regard to products. There would be more opportunities for the UK to offer different conditions for trade in services and sectors such as public procurement. At the end of the transitional period, the final withdrawal agreement would be considered by a joint committee-based structure that would make decisions by mutual agreement and whose judgments would be binding. The government has pledged to vote on a resolution in both houses of Parliament before the Edo-Speaker votes, where each parliament is asked to approve the withdrawal agreement. So far, the British Parliament had had two «wise votes» but had not approved the November 2018 withdrawal agreement, despite assurances from the EU in January 2019 that the backstop should not be permanent and other interpretations and clarifications in March 2019. The Strasbourg clarification package and the Attorney General`s opinion will be discussed in the Commons Briefing Paper 8525 The Strasbourg package, 13 March 2019.
Otherwise, the «backstop» solution for Ireland and Northern Ireland, which aims to avoid a hard border, would come into force. The backstop, which consists of «a single customs territory between the EU and the United Kingdom,» applies from the end of the transition period» unless … A subsequent agreement will apply. According to the British in Europe lobby group (which represents British citizens residing in EU countries) in June 2020, «up to 23 EU Member States had still implemented systems to document the future rights of the 1.2 million British citizens already living on the continent who are unaware of their future rights and obligations.»  «The UK introduced its [registration] system for EU citizens last March , in which more than 3.3 million people were granted pre-regulated or regulated status after Brexit,» he said.  The EU has repeatedly stated that it will not allow British fish exporters to access EU markets duty-free and quota-free, in exchange for a reciprocal agreement allowing EU fishing fleets to continue operating in UK waters.